1. Реальное условие - действие может произойти при определенных обстоятельствах.

I’ll phone you if I learn his address. - Я позвоню тебе, если узнаю его адрес.

I’ll phone you when I learn his address. - Я позвоню тебе, когда узнаю его адрес.

Действие относится к будущему, но в предложениях с if и when употребляется Present Simple.

Возможны также варианты:

Phone me if you learn his address.

Phone me when you learn his address.

2. Нереальное условие - действие не могло произойти, так как не были соблюдены условия.

I would phone you if I knew his address. - Я бы позвонил тебе, если бы знал его адрес.

Ситуация относится к настоящему, но в предложении используются Future-in-the-Past и Past Simple после if.

e.g. Tom would read more if he had more time.

It would be useful if you could drive a car.

If I were you I wouldn’t do that.

3. В условных предложениях может использоваться глагол «wish» в значении «if».

Глагол после «wish» стоит в прошедшем времени, но ситуация относится к настоящему.

e.g. I wish I knew his phone number.

I wish I didn’t have to go there.

I wish I had this book.

Do you wish you could play the piano?

4. Нереальное условие в прошлом - действие не могло произойти, так как не было условий. Ситуация относится к прошлому, в предложении используются Past Perfect и Future Perfect-in-the-Past.

If I had known you were in the hospital I would have visited you.

Ex. 1. Put the verbs into the right form. The sentences are about future.

1. I ... (phone) you when I ... (get) home from work.

2. I ... (tell) you about that when we ... (return).

3. Don’t worry if I ...(be) late tonight.

4. I ... (be) surprised if she ... (get) the job.

5. When you ...(see) him again you ... (not recognize) him.

6. We ...(play) tennis tomorrow if the weather ...(be) nice.

7. If Tom ...(phone) you this evening ...(give) him the message.

8. When I ...(come) to Rome I ... (visit) a friend of mine.

Ex. 2. Put the verb into the right form.

1. If you took more exercise, you ...(feel) better.

2. I’d be very surprised if Amy ...(refuse) to lend you money.

3. If I sold my car I ...(not get) much money for it.

4. A lot of people would be out of work if the factory ... (close) down.

5. Liz ...(be) very upset if I lost the key.

6. Would Tim mind if I ... (borrow) his bicycle without asking him?

7. I ...(not buy) this cost if I were you.

8. I ...(help) you if I could.

9. We would need a car if we ...(live) in the country.

10. The soup would be tastier if it ...(not be) so salty.

11. If you ...(not go) to bed so late every night, you wouldn’t be so tired all the time.

12. If there ...(not be) so many cars, there ...(not be) so much pollution.

Ex.3. Complete the sentences.

1. If you took more exercise, ...

2. If I didn’t go to work tomorrow, ...

3. Would you go to the party if...

4. If you bought some new clothes ...

5. Would you mind if...

6. I’d feel very angry if...

Ex.4. Write sentences beginning «with wish»

1. I don’t know many people. (I’m lonely.)___ I wish I knew more people.__________

2. I don’t have a key. (I must get in.)

__________________________________

3. Ann isn’t here. (I want to see her.)

___________________________________

4. It’s cold. (I hate cold weather.)

___________________________________

5. I live in a big city. (I don’t like it.)

___________________________________

6. I can’t go to the party. (I want to go.)

_________________________________

7. I have to work tomorrow. (It is weekend.)

_________________________________

8. I can’t repair cars. (My car has broken down.)

______________________________

9. I’m not at the seaside. (And it’s a pity.)

___________________________________

10. It’s raining cats and dogs. (I’ve no umbrella.)

______________________________

Ex.5. Put the verb into the correct form.

1. I didn’t know you were in hospital. If I had known (know) I would have visited (visit) you.

2. Ken got to the station in time to catch his train. If he (miss) it he (be) late for the interview.

3. Thank you for reminding me about Ann’s birthday. I (forget) if you (not remind) me.

4. Unfortunately, I didn’t have your address. If I (have) it I (send) you a postcard.

5. We had a nice holiday, but we (enjoy) it more if the weather (be) better.

6. I took a taxi to the hotel but the traffic was too thick It (be) quicker if I (walk).

7. I’m not tired. If I (be) tired, I’d go home now.

8. I wasn’t tired last night. If I (be) tired, I would have gone home earlier.

Светлана НОСОВА, учитель английского языка Технологического лицея при Сыктывкарском лесном институте Республики Коми